What is a cell?
Test your knowledge of the cell by answering the following questions, and if you don't know the answers then read the text below to find out.
Q1. The fluid within a cell is called the __________.
Q2. Nucleoplasm is the fluid found within the _________.
Q3. _______ synthesise proteins and enzymes.
Q4. DNA is found within the ________.
Q5. DNA stands for _______________ _____.
Q6. The intracellular structures involved in energy production are called ________________.
Q7. The _______ apparatus synthesises carbohydrates and vacuoles.
Q8. The intracellular structures involved in cleaning up cellular debris are called ___________.
What is a cell?
A cell is composed of a selectively permeable plasma membrane filled with cytoplasm, and containing several intracellular structures. The cytoplasm is a watery solution of organic molecules, gasses and minerals, and is the site of chemical reactions within the cell.
The intracellular structures include the :
- ribosomes - tiny structures of protein and RNA that are the sites of protein and enzyme synthesis,
- mitochondrion - sites of energy production,
- lyosomes - containing digestive enzymes that destro cellular debris and bacteria,
- centrosome - dense areas of cytoplasm containing centrioles,
- centrioles - involved in cell division,
- endoplasmic reticulum - which synthesizes secretory proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, and provides a passageway for the transport of materials within the cell,
- golgi apparatus - which synthesises and transports carbohydrates, and
- vacuoles - which containing waste material in the cell.
The biology of a single eukaryotic cell
Also found within the cytoplasm is the nucleus, which is the control centre of the cell. Filled with nucleoplasm within a selectively porous nuclear membrane, the nucleus contains the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and chromatin, which together form chromosomes during mitosis.
Reference: Clinically Oriented Anatomy, Moore
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